Eventually, the momentum turned and much of the land gained was lost. These fissures in their support led to immediate problems. On 9 June 15 Ramadan AH , Abu Muslim , rising from Khorasan, successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. The Abbasid caliphs in Egypt continued to maintain the presence of authority, but it was confined to religious matters. This war ended with a two-year siege of Baghdad and the eventual death of al-Amin in
Harun al-Rashid turned on the Barmakids , a Persian family that had grown significantly in power within the administration of the state and killed most of the family. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until al-Radi —41 was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Muhammad ibn Ra'iq. A new position, that of the vizier , was also established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs. In the East as well, governors decreased their ties to the center. These attacks pushed into the Taurus Mountains culminating with a victory at the Battle of Krasos and the massive invasion of , led by Rashid himself. Also during this period officers started assassinating superiors with whom they disagreed, in particular the caliphs. Abbasid Golden Age — [ edit ] Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad. Rashid decided to focus on the rebellion of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Khorasan and died while there. By , the Seljuqs had wrested control from the Buyids and Abbasids, and took any remaining temporal power. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. The Mamluk army, though often viewed negatively, both helped and hurt the caliphate. He strengthened his personal army with Turkish mercenaries and promptly restarted the war with the Byzantines. The reign of al-Rashid and his sons were considered to be the apex of the Abbasids. His attempt at seizing Constantinople failed when his fleet was destroyed by a storm. The Caliph's immediate family was also executed, with the lone exceptions of his youngest son who was sent to Mongolia, and a daughter who became a slave in the harem of Hulagu. The remainder of his family, barring one male, were also eliminated. On 9 June 15 Ramadan AH , Abu Muslim , rising from Khorasan, successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. The noble Iranian family Barmakids , who were instrumental in building Baghdad , introduced the world's first recorded paper mill in the city, thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain. Outside Iraq, all the autonomous provinces slowly took on the characteristic of de facto states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues and operated under only nominal caliph suzerainty, which may not necessarily be reflected by any contribution to the treasury, such as the Soomro Emirs that had gained control of Sindh and ruled the entire province from their capital of Mansura. After nearly years of subjection to foreign dynasties, he successfully defended Baghdad against the Seljuqs in the siege of Baghdad , thus securing Iraq for the Abbasids. His military excursions were generally successful culminating with a resounding victory in the Sack of Amorium. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions. The Shiites of Persia stated that no such calamity had happened after the death of Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Kerbala ; nevertheless, as a precaution and in accordance with a Mongol taboo which forbade spilling royal blood, Hulagu had Al-Musta'sim wrapped in a carpet and trampled to death by horses on 20 February According to the history of Miskawayh , they began distributing iqtas fiefs in the form of tax farms to their supporters. This period of localized secular control was to last nearly years.
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