In America, Anna Freud heavily influenced American psychoanalysis in the s, s, and s. Object-usage is more developed, as it requires cognitive separation from the object. I want to suggest that the origin of thought lies in this process of testing phantasy against reality; that is, that thought is not only contrasted with phantasy, but based on it and derived from it. The psycho-analysis of children A. Freud garnered an American allegiance. In the depressive position, the infant is able to experience others as whole, which radically alters object relationships from the earlier phase.
They represent regression to the phase of development the first two to three years of life before repression and its related mechanisms mentioned are established. Furthermore, its origins are different from those that Freud proposed. Melanie Klein saw this surfacing from the depressive position as a prerequisite for social life. Through repeated experience with good enough parenting, the internal image that the child has of external others, that is the child's internal object, is modified by experience and the image transforms, merging experiences of good and bad which becomes more similar to the real object e. The instinctual rooting is the preconception. If the client thinks the therapist is wise and compassionate the therapist sees this as an interaction between the client's Libidinal Ego and Exciting Object. If the therapist can patiently be an empathic therapist through the client's re-enactment, then the client has a new experience to incorporate into their inner object world, hopefully expanding their inner picture of their Good Object. While a different strain of psychoanalytic theory and research, the findings in attachment studies have continued to support the validity of the developmental progressions described in object relations. The first bodily experiences begin to build up the first memories, and external realities are progressively woven into the texture of phantasy. Endorsement of items on these subscales was related to perceptions of the relationship. Fairbairn's "moral defense" is the tendency seen in survivors of abuse to take all the bad upon themselves, each believing he is morally bad so his caretaker object can be regarded as good. The mother thus receives love or destructive attack depending on this. Ogden  identifies four functions that projective identification may serve. It is also concerned with the relation between the subject and their internalized objects, as well as with external objects. These internalized object relations are activated in the transference with an alternating role distribution, that is, the patient enacts a self representation while projecting the corresponding object representation onto the analyst at times, while at other times projecting his self representation onto the analyst and identifying with the corresponding object representation. Projection is an attempt to eject the bad in order to control through omnipotent mastery. The impulse or drive derivative is reflected by a dominant, usually primitive affect disposition linking a particular dyadic object relation; the associated defensive operation is also represented unconsciously by a corresponding dyadic relation between a self representation and an object representation under the dominance of a certain affect state. ORT is related to Attachment Theory. While object relations theory grew out of psychoanalysis, it has been applied to the general fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy by such authors as N. Fairbairn took a radical departure from Freud by positing that humans were not seeking satisfaction of the drive, but actually seek the satisfaction that comes in being in relation to real others. These reactions threaten to overwhelm the individuality of the infant. Splitting is never fully effective, according to Klein, as the ego tends towards integration. In this way, the child perceives that what happens to good objects in phantasy does not happen to them in reality. Object Relations Theory attempts to explain this phenomenon via the theory of the Good Object. A typical successful therapy lasts sessions. Therapists at the Institute wean their clients off all anti-depressants and anti-anxiety medications, and then work with the clients using Transference Focused Psychotherapy, a form of Object Relations Theory. If the therapist has absent mindedly made a mistake that hurts the client, the therapist admits the mistake, and empathizes with the client's pain, but instead of apologizing, the therapist asks:
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