However, married heterosexuals still reported lower psychological distress than did legally married same-sex couples, and psychological distress was lower for same-sex married couples than it was for same-sex couples with no legal union. In the fifteen years since DOMA passed, gay marriage went from a speculative and distinctively fringe idea to an article of faith for many Americans who have bought into the concept that same-sex marriage is a fundamental matter of civil right. In the mids, few Americans had ever heard of the idea of gay marriage. A lot has changed since A matter of some dispute involves the criteria used by the Court to determine which rights qualify for this heightened protection and how the scope of those rights should be defined.
The crafting of gay marriage as a proposal for social reform, of course, connected with the organized interests of many activists outside the academy, and I mean to take nothing away from their energetic advocacy. In the mids, few Americans had ever heard of the idea of gay marriage. DOMA defined marriage as a relationship between one man and one woman and specified that no state could be required to recognize a same-sex union authorized in another state. Among the younger crowd, just 19 percent held that view. However, few studies have directly examined the health effects of legal marriage versus cohabitation among same-sex couples. Legal recognition and sanctioning of same-sex relationships has occurred in various fits and starts across the United States. Men was used as an indicator of gender. When put to a ballot initiative in California in November Proposition 8 , the idea that marriage should be restricted to one man and one woman passed with over 7 million votes more than 52 percent. We trichotomized race into 3 dummy coded variables: Top of the list are the Na, a matrilineal tribe of farmers in southwest China near the Burmese border. Rather, the academic discussion has been dominated by those who view gay marriage as a civil rights issue. This 4-level nesting structure allowed us to 1 overcome the violation of independence of error terms associated with nested models, and 2 account for unmeasured heterogeneity by including fixed-effects for each of the upper 3 levels households, state-years, and states. Eskridge clearly thought so. In 1 study in Massachusetts, legal recognition positively influenced the well-being of lesbian couples married in , and lesbian couples who reported high levels of marital satisfaction also enjoyed better overall health than did those with low levels of marital satisfaction. We experimented with models in which these states were coded in the antigay marriage category, and our results were consistent with those presented here. We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. The cases discussed in this Article have all been decided on state constitutional grounds, which differ both in their wording and in the degree of protection that they offer. We used several additional control variables in the following analyses. We are unlike chimpanzees and all other primates in that regard. From to , it asked: And the arguments that propelled gay marriage through the courts in several states were grounded in the published work of academics who succeeded in keeping the focus almost entirely on questions of how gay partners were denied access to legal benefits enjoyed by married heterosexual partners. Because we used the March CPS data file for these analyses, we coded the states as having enacted the given legislation only if the law was passed before March of the year of the interview data available as a supplement to the online version of this article at http: In addition, because of the categorical nature of our dependent variable, we estimated ordered logistic regression models that are appropriate for an ordinal level outcome variable. The case could go to the U. Are there no secular arguments against gay marriage worth considering? We measured family income as the natural log of family income. PDF How to Cite.
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