Primarily acting as bankers, they offered money to independent producers. On realizing how much money could potentially be made in films, major corporations started buying up the remaining Hollywood studios, saving them from the oblivion which befell RKO in the 50s. Based upon a common belief that the "official cinema" was "running out of breath" and had become "morally corrupt, aesthetically obsolete, thematically superficial, [and] temperamentally boring",  this new crop of independents formed The Film-Makers' Cooperative , an artist-run, non-profit organization which they would use to distribute their films through a centralized archive. Selznick were made "producing partners" i. As the years passed and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Several costly flops, including Cleopatra and Hello, Dolly! George Lucas would leave Zoetrope in to create his own independent studio, Lucasfilm , which would produce the blockbuster Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises.
The focus on high-concept premises, with greater concentration on tie-in merchandise such as toys , spin-offs into other media such as soundtracks , and the use of sequels which had been made more respectable by Coppola's The Godfather Part II , all showed the studios how to make money in the new environment. Outside Hollywood[ edit ] During the s, shifts in thematic depictions of sexuality and violence occurred in American cinema, prominently featuring heightened depictions of realistic sex and violence. Still, even with a broadening of the company, UA struggled. Through Zoetrope, Coppola formed a distribution agreement with studio giant Warner Bros. De Laurentiis, furious that the film had been a commercial disaster, was then forced to produce any film Lynch desired. Rallying around such institutions as the Film-Makers' Cooperative and Anthology Film Archives, this new generation of independents devoted themselves to the defiance of the now-establishment New Hollywood, proposing that "all film schools be blown up and all boring films never be made again. Directors such as John Waters and David Lynch would make a name for themselves by the early s for the bizarre and often disturbing imagery which characterized their films. These successes by the members of New Hollywood led each of them in turn to make more and more extravagant demands, both on the studio and eventually on the audience. Widescreen processes and technical improvements, such as Cinemascope , stereo sound, 3-D and others, were developed in an attempt to retain the dwindling audience by giving them a larger-than-life experience. The veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. Mekas and Brakhage would go on to found the Anthology Film Archives in , which would likewise prove essential to the development and preservation of independent films, even to this day. Mawra , Michael Findlay , and Henri Pachard and avant-garde cinema, Kenneth Anger , Maya Deren a number of young film makers began to experiment with transgression not as a box-office draw, but as an artistic act. However, by the late s, audience share was dwindling at an alarming rate. Unlike the films made within the studio system, these new low-budget films could afford to take risks and explore new artistic territory outside the classical Hollywood narrative. Until his so-called "retirement" as a director in he continued to produce films even after this date he would produce up to seven movies a year, matching and often exceeding the five-per-year schedule that the executives at United Artists had once thought impossible. In an attempt to capture this audience, the Studios hired a host of young filmmakers many of whom were mentored by Roger Corman and allowed them to make their films with relatively little studio control. It also established his place as a commercially viable, if somewhat dark and unconventional, Hollywood director. As the s progressed, the new low-budget paradigm of filmmaking gained increased recognition internationally, with films such as Satyajit Ray 's critically acclaimed     Apu Trilogy — The cult audiences these pictures attracted soon made them ideal candidates for midnight movie screenings revolving around audience participation and cosplay. In fact, the only two movies of the movement which can be described as uncompromisingly independent are Easy Rider at the beginning, and Peter Bogdanovich 's They All Laughed , at the end. Romero shocked audiences with Night of the Living Dead , a new kind of intense and unforgiving independent horror film. Because of this, many of their films would be shot on location. It was believed that no one, no matter how popular, could produce and star in five quality feature films a year. Rowland , head of Metro Pictures , is said to have observed, "The inmates are taking over the asylum. Hart a year earlier as they were traveling around the U. Unlike the production code, this rating system posed a threat to independent films in that it would affect the number of tickets they could sell and cut into the grindhouse cinema's share of the youth market.
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